Çerez Örnek

Kidney Transplantation

Where are kidneys located? What are their duties?


Kidneys; They are organs located in the back of the abdomen, above the waist, on the right and left.

Normally there are 2 kidneys in the body.

Kidneys are approximately 10-12 cm in length and resemble beans in shape.

The kidneys create urine to remove harmful and waste materials from our body; They regulate the liquid-electrolyte and acid-base balance. In addition, it stabilizes blood pressure, stimulates the production of blood cells, and keeps bones strong by synthesizing active vitamin D.

Although it varies depending on fluid intake and fluid loss, there is an average of 1-2 liters of urine output per day.

What is kidney failure?


The failure of the kidneys to perform their functions partially or completely due to various diseases is called kidney failure. Kidney failure can be acute or chronic.

Acute kidney failure


The sudden loss of function of the kidneys is called acute kidney failure.

Acute renal failure manifests itself with a decrease in kidney function in a short time such as days or weeks and the accumulation of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and other uremic toxins in the body.

Why does acute kidney failure occur?


Acute kidney failure may develop due to trauma.

Fluid loss due to prolonged dehydration and diarrhea, vomiting,

Sudden and excessive blood loss,

Being under dent for a long time,

Severe burns

Frequently recurring throat infections in childhood,

Many reasons such as inability to urinate for a long time as a result of prostate enlargement can cause acute renal failure.

Acute renal failure usually develops in hospitalized patients and may be due to many reasons.

How does acute kidney failure manifest?

Acute renal failure;


Decrease in the amount of urine,

Edema due to fluid accumulation in feet and knees,

Shortness of breath / chest pain,

Loss of appetite / nausea and vomiting

Fatigue / weakness,

Mental or mental changes,

It can show with symptoms such as coma.

How is acute kidney failure diagnosed?


In the diagnosis of acute renal failure, the patient's physical examination is performed first and the patient's history is important in the examination. In the detailed anamnesis, the patient complaints are asked in detail.

The diagnosis of acute renal failure is confirmed by requesting tests such as blood and urinalysis, abdominal ultrasonography, abdominal computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

How is acute kidney failure treated?


The main approach in the treatment of acute kidney failure is to protect the fluid and electrolyte balance of the patient by treating the underlying cause, and to restore the kidneys to their former health by providing the patient with adequate nutrition.

Acute kidney failure is treated in hospital. If acute renal failure occurs due to fluid and blood loss, fluid and blood are given via serum. If there is swelling (edema) in the legs, diuretic drugs are used. It is important to maintain the balance of calcium and potassium in the blood. Temporary dialysis treatment can be applied to the patient to remove waste materials from the blood.

Chronic kidney failure


Kidneys perform many functions that are necessary for us to live a healthy life.

Basic functions of the kidneys


Removing harmful residues such as urea and creatinine, which are formed as a result of daily metabolism, from our body with urine.

Helping our organs to function adequately and keeping our blood pressure in balance by removing excess water and salts with different structures such as sodium and potassium from the body through urine.

It is to remove some of the medicines we take from the body with urine.

The kidneys also have other important functions besides producing urine.

The kidneys are responsible for making a hormone called erythropoietin, which matures blood cells in the bone marrow. In this way, it protects the body against anemia.

It regulates the balance of calcium and phosphorus by contributing to the synthesis of vitamin D. This makes our bones resistant.

It regulates the blood levels of some hormones.

What problems arise in the functioning of the body as a result of the kidneys not performing their functions?


With the deterioration of the function of our kidneys over the years, the picture called chronic kidney failure occurs. Major causes of chronic kidney failure; diabetes (diabetes) and high blood pressure (hypertension). In addition, a similar clinical picture may occur in some inflammatory diseases of the kidney called chronic glomerulonephritis.

Chronic kidney patients may have no complaints or symptoms for years. Sometimes, symptoms specific to the underlying disease may be encountered. It is very important for everyone in the society to have their blood pressure checked and to have health screenings periodically in order to detect hypertension, which is often associated with chronic kidney disease.

What are the symptoms of chronic kidney failure?


As a result of the progress of chronic kidney disease over the years and the gradual decrease in kidney functions, some complaints and symptoms occur. Bo

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